Mengenal CopyLeft



COPYLEFT

Kata copyleft memang terdengar seperti lawan kata dari copyright. Merujuk dari kata “right” atau kanan pasti lawan katanya “left” atau kiri. Padahal tidak demikian adanya, right disini berarti “hak”. Banyak orang berasumsi kalau kata copyleft lawan kata dari copyright, yang berarti pembajakan. Padahal anggapan itu keliru.

Kata Copyleft diperkenalkan oleh Richard Stallman, yaitu seorang programmer komputer yang bekerja untuk Massachusets Institute of Technology (MIT) pada akhir tahun 1970-an. Pada saat itu, pekerjaan programming sangat bernuansa kerjasama. Saling tukar source code dari suatu program tidak hanya menjadi suatu hal yang biasa, bahkan telah menjadi budaya dan seolah-olah menjadi suatu kewajiban, tentunya menurut kode etik dan hukum tidak tertulis dari komunitas programmer tersebut. Pada awal tahun 1980-an, lanskap industri software berubah drastis karena beberapa perusahaan pengembang software mulai mendistribusikan program komputer tanpa disertai source code nya. Akibatnya, para programmer tidak bisa lagi mempelajari substansi dari program komputer tersebut. Hal ini secara langsung mengubah budaya kerja para programmer, karena mereka tidak lagi bisa saling membantu dalam memperbaiki atau meningkatkan kemampuan suatu program komputer. Hanya programmer di perusahaan yang menyimpan source code­-nya saja yang bisa memperbaiki, memodifikasi, atau mengembangkan program komputer tersebut. Budaya kerjasama dan kebersamaan pun hilang, digantikan oleh budaya korporat kapitalis yang hanya melihat program komputer sebagai mesin uang.

Dalam perkembangannya, program komputer tanpa source code yang sudah menjadi mesin uang tersebut mereka jaga untuk senantiasa beroperasi dengan memanfaatkan rezim hukum Copyright. Caranya ialah dengan membuat berbagai tipe lisensi untuk produk yang secara esensial sebenarnya sama. Misalnya, untuk kalangan individu-non komersial mereka sebut End-User License, untuk kalangan komersial mereka sebut Corporate License, dan untuk kalangan pelajar dan mahasiswa mereka sebut Academic License. Lalu jika produknya sama, apa perbedaan yang dirasakan oleh pembeli dari masing-masing lisensi tersebut? Jawabannya adalah: Harga. Dan dengan berlindung di balik rezim hukum Hak Cipta, para borjuis produsen closed source/propietary program komputer menjual produknya dengan harga yang sangat tinggi kepada masyarakat dan turut serta melatih, mendukung, dan menjadi saksi ahli bagi pihak kepolisian untuk memenjarakan para pelaku pembajakan. Padahal, jika mereka memang berniat baik untuk mencerdaskan bangsa dan menghapus pembajakan caranya sangatlah mudah: distribusikanlah program komputer tersebut dengan source code-nya dan murahkan-lah harganya.

Stallman mencoba melawan budaya korporat tersebut dan mempertahankan budaya kerjasama antara para programmer. Caranya adalah dengan membuat program komputer yang didistribusikan dengan bersama source code-nya, yang dia sebut sebagai Free Software. Karena setelah keluar dari MIT, Stallman tidak memiliki pekerjaan, Ia mencoba menawarkan Free Software ciptaannya dengan harga tertentu untuk memperoleh penghasilan. Ternyata, jualannya Stallman cukup sukses. Banyak programmer yang membelinya. Stallman pun membentuk lembaga untuk mengelola pendistribusian itu yang disebutnya Free Software Foundation. Kemudian Stallman memanfaatkan haknya sebagai pencipta dan pemegang hak cipta atas software tersebut untuk mendesain tipe lisensi yang diniatkannya untuk memberikan kebebasan yang seluas-luasnya kepada setiap orang untuk dapat mempelajari program komputer ciptaannya. Suatu lisensi yang diharapkannya akan mendorong kembalinya kerjasama antar para programmer komputer. Lisensi tersebut kemudian dia populerkan dengan istilah: Copyleft.

Jadi, Copyleft, sebagaimana yang Stallman sendiri katakan, adalah suatu “distribution term” atau istilah pemasaran. Kalau mau dicari padanannya, kata itu setara dengan kata, misalnya, MLM (Multi Level Marketing) yang merupakan suatu kata dalam konteks pemasaran dan bukan suatu istilah hukum yang tercantum dalam suatu peraturan. Produk yang dipasarkan dengan sistem Copyleft adalah Free Software yang disebutnya sebagai GNU Software. Sebagai suatu tipe lisensi, Copyleft merefleksikan 4 macam izin yang diberikan oleh pencipta/pemegang hak ciptanya kepada siapa saja, yaitu:

(1) Izin untuk menjalankan program (free to run the program);

(2) Izin untuk memperbanyak program (free to copy the program);

(3) Izin untuk memodifikasi program (free to modify the program); dan

(4) Izin untuk mendistribusikan program hasil modifikasi (free to distribute modified copy).

Dan karena pendistribusian program ini dapat dilakukan dengan cara jual-beli, maka kata “free” disini tidak berarti gratis atau zero price. Kata “free” disini berarti: FREEDOM atau kebebasan.

Dalam perkembangannya, software yang didistribusikan dengan source code ada yang disebut sebagai Open Source Software. Lalu kata “free” dalam Copyleft license kemudian populer dalam bahasa perancis, yaitu Libre. Dan saat ini, gabungan antara kata Free Software, Open Source Software, dan Libre Software kemudian berujung pada akronim yang disebut FLOSS atau Free/Libre/Open Source Software. Tetapi jangan sampai anda terkecoh dengan istilah FREEWARE. Karena software yang disebut Freeware sudah pasti gratis, tetapi belum tentu open source.


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Senator Mark R. Warner and Melissa Hathaway to Keynote at Symantec Government Symposium 2009

CUPERTINO, Calif. – June 4, 2009 – Symantec Corp. (Nasdaq: SYMC) today announced that Senator Mark R. Warner (D-VA) and Melissa Hathaway, acting senior director for cyberspace for the National Security and Homeland Security Councils, will deliver keynote addresses at Symantec Government Symposium: Government 2.0 – Moving Forward Together. The event will be held on June 16, 2009 at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D.C.

The Government Symposium is a complimentary, one-day annual event that is devoted to the public sector and its partners. The event will bring together more than 500 government IT, security and business professionals to discuss challenges and opportunities related to information management and security in a Web 2.0 world.


Symantec President and CEO, Enrique T. Salem, and Chairman of the Board John W. Thompson will welcome attendees to the Symposium. In addition to the keynote addresses, six speaking tracks will be offered on topics including cloud computing, virtualization, infrastructure protection, e-Discovery, green IT, standardization and security awareness as they relate to the public sector.

Symposium Topics:

  • Government 2.0 implications for data management and information protection
  • Information sharing and next-generation government
  • Evolution of secure and transparent government
  • Governance priorities
  • Virtual environment management and protection
  • Cloud computing
  • The Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) and the new administration
To register for the Symposium, view the full speaker faculty, or access more information, visit www.symantec.com/symposium.

Quote:
"The new administration, evolving IT policies and dynamic technology tools are changing the way government communicates, collaborates and serves citizens. It is essential for the government and its partners to enable information transparency while providing consistent protection at every information point within the infrastructure to protect government and citizen data," said Jim Russell, Symantec's vice president for public sector. "Symantec Government Symposium 2009 will encourage government and industry to work together and share their expertise on making information secure and available in Government 2.0.”



About Symantec

Symantec is a global leader in providing security, storage and systems management solutions to help consumers and organizations secure and manage their information-driven world. Our software and services protect against more risks at more points, more completely and efficiently, enabling confidence wherever information is used or stored. More information is available at www.symantec.com.


Note to Editors: If you would like additional information on Symantec Corporation and its products, please visit the Symantec News Room at http://www.symantec.com/news. All prices noted are in U.S. dollars and are valid only in the United States.


Symantec and the Symantec Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec Corporation or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.




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Vidić relieved to pass test of nerves



Manchester United FC may have advanced to the last eight of the UEFA Champions League but goalscorer Nemanja Vidić admitted that nerves nearly got the better of them against FC Internazionale Milano.
Lost their wayVidić nodded the first of United's two goals as they secured a 2-0 aggregate win over the Italian champions on Wednesday but in between his fourth-minute opener and Cristiano Ronaldo's second four minutes after the restart, the home team lost their way and very nearly paid the price as Inter went close to equalising on several occasions.
'Got a little nervous'"We played well until we scored the goal," said Vidić, whose powerful header brought his sixth goal in all competitions this season. "After the goal we got a little bit nervous because we knew how important it was not to concede and Inter had two good chances to score in the first half that they didn't take. The manager didn't tell us to play defensively but we knew that if we lost a goal it would change everything and it is difficult against Italian teams because they are very good tactically. I think we played better in Milan as we didn't give them any chances there."
Key partnershipIf United were not at their best, they still managed to earn their sixth clean sheet of this European campaign – more than any other side in the competition – as they stretched their unbeaten run in the UEFA Champions League to a competition-record 21 matches. "There is a mentality here to win games," said Vidić, whose partnership with Rio Ferdinand has been a key factor in United's success this term. Besides a record-breaking run of shutouts in the Premier League, Sir Alex Ferguson's men have conceded just three goals in eight games in Europe – two fewer than at this stage last year.
'Winning breeds confidence'Ferdinand felt United rode their luck against Inter, who struck the woodwork twice, but said they were confident of winning even when lacking their usual fluency. "In this kind of game you will have to ride your luck at times but when you have opportunities you have to take them and today for us we came through. We didn't play particularly well but I don't think we have any reason to fear anyone. We have won a lot of games since Christmas and winning breeds confidence. We are at a moment where, at times, we are not playing particularly well but getting results through sheer determination and a will to win." The statistics provide impressive support: United have won 14 and drawn two of their last 16 games – and one of those draws was their victory over Tottenham Hotspur FC on penalties in the League Cup final.


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